Battle for Mosul: Operation to retake Iraqi city from IS begins

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An Iraqi operation to recapture the city of Mosul, the last major stronghold of the so-called Islamic State (IS) in the country, has started.

Artillery began firing on the city early on Monday, in a long-awaited assault from Kurdish Peshmerga, Iraqi government and allied forces.

Tanks are now moving towards the city, which has been held by IS since 2014.

The UN has expressed “extreme concern” for the safety of up to 1.5 million people in the area.

The BBC’s Orla Guerin, who is with Kurdish forces east of Mosul, says tanks are advancing on the city, kicking up clouds of dust.

As the operation began, one Kurdish general told our correspondent: “If I am killed today I will die happy because I have done something for my people.”

The recapture of the city, capital of the northern Nineveh governorate, would mark the effective defeat of IS in Iraq, officials say.

It was from Mosul that IS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi declared a caliphate – a state governed in accordance with Islamic law – in territory controlled by the group in Iraq and Syria.

Peshmerga soldiers prepare for operation to retake Mosul

The start of the operation was announced by Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi in a televised address in the early hours of Monday (local time), “The hour of victory has come,” he said.

“Today I declare the start of the heroic operations to liberate you from Daesh,” he said, using another name for IS.


“God willing we will meet in Mosul to celebrate the liberation and your salvation from Isis (IS) so we can live together once again, all religions united and together we shall defeat Daesh to rebuild this dear city of Mosul.”

Surrounded by senior Iraqi officers, the prime minister vowed that only government forces would enter Mosul, a Sunni-majority city.

This, analysts said, was an attempt to counter fears that the operation could turn into a sectarian conflict.

Who is fighting?

About 30,000 pro-government forces are involved in the operation. The main assault is being led by Iraqi army troops based south of Mosul.

About 4,000 Kurdish Peshmerga militia have begun clearing villages in the east.

Sunni tribal fighters and Shia-led paramilitary forces are also due to take part. Planes from the US-led coalition against IS are providing air support.

US Special Operations personnel are advising forces on the ground. Elite Iraqi counterterrorism forces are expected to join in the coming days.

An estimated 4,000-8,000 Islamic State fighters are defending the city.

How will battle unfold? By Michael Knights, Washington Institute for Near East Policy

What can be said with certainty is that the liberation of Mosul will be a multi-phased operation.

First the logistical base for the operation must be established at Qayyarah airbase. This is also the collecting point for the Iraqi forces that will liberate Mosul.

The next phase will be a multi-pronged advance on the outskirts of Mosul. This phase will unfold in fits and spurts: one day 10 miles will be gained easily, another day there will be tough fighting at an IS strongpoint or a pause to bring up supplies.

During November and December the main battle will likely begin. But for the Iraqi and coalition forces the issue of civilians will be a tricky factor.


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